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3/25/12

Unit 10 Online Practice Exercises & Review

Unit 10
1. Quantifiers
Quantifiers - Some rules of thumb on the use of little, a little, few and a few.

LITTLE : only used with UNCOUNTABLE nouns, synonym for hardly any, not much

EX:  Look at the sky, there is little hope for bright and sunny weather tomorrow.

A LITTLE:only used with UNCOUNTABLE nouns, synonym for a small amount, some

EX: Is there ? The weather forecast says there is still a little hope.

FEW: with COUNTABLE nouns, synonym for hardly any, not many

EX:Few people attended the meeting. I counted only 4.

A FEW: with COUNTABLE nouns, synonym for a small number, some

EX: A few people asked me how I felt. That was nice.
Usage of quantifiers:

A few and few, a little and little
Graded Quantifiers
Some or  Any?
Something, Anything, Someone, Anyone etc.
Enough

A few and few, a little and little

These expressions show the speaker's attitude towards the quantity he/she is referring to.

A few (for countable nouns) and a little (for uncountable nouns) describe the quantity in a positive way:
  • "I've got a few friends" (= maybe not many, but enough)
  • "I've got a little money" (= I've got enough to live on)


Few and little describe the quantity in a negative way:
  • Few people visited him in hospital (= he had almost no visitors)
  • He had little money (= almost no money)
Graded Quantifiers

They are like comparatives and hold a relative position on a scale of increase or decrease.
 
INCREASE (0% to 100%)


With plural countable nouns:
many more   most


With uncountable nouns:
much more   most
                       
DECREASE (100% to 0%)


With plural countable nouns:
few     fewer fewest


With uncountable nouns:
little     less     least


INCREASE (0% to 100%)
WITH PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUNS
many
more
most
WITH UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
much
more
most
DECREASE (100% to 0%)
WITH PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUNS
few
fewer
fewest
WITH UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
little
less
least

 Examples:

·        There are many people in Poland, more in India, but the most people live in China.

·        Much time and money is spent on education, more on health services but the most is spent on national defense.

·        Few rivers in Europe aren’t polluted.

·        Fewer people die young now than in the nineteenth century.

·        The country with the fewest people per square kilometre must be Australia.

·        Scientists have little hope of finding a complete cure for cancer before 2010.

·        She had less time to study than I did but had better results.

·        Give that dog the least opportunity and it will bite you.

Quantifiers with countable and uncountable nouns

Some adjectives and adjectival phrases can only go with uncountable nouns (salt, rice, money, advice), and some can only go with countable nouns (friends, bags, people). The words in the middle column can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.
 

Some Notes on Quantifiers

Like articles, quantifiers are words that precede and modify nouns. They tell us how many or how much. Selecting the correct quantifier depends on your understanding the distinction between Count and Non-Count Nouns. For our purposes, we will choose the count noun trees and the non-count noun dancing:
Ø  The following quantifiers will work with count nouns:
      many trees
      a few trees
      few trees
      several trees
      a couple of trees
      none of the trees
Ø  The following quantifiers will work with non-count nouns:
      not much dancing
      a little dancing
      little dancing
      a bit of dancing
      a good deal of dancing
      a great deal of dancing
      no dancing
Ø  The following quantifiers will work with both count and non-count nouns:
      all of the trees/dancing
      some trees/dancing
      most of the trees/dancing
      enough trees/dancing
      a lot of trees/dancing
      lots of trees/dancing
      plenty of trees/dancing
      a lack of trees/dancing
In formal academic writing, it is usually better to use many and much rather than phrases such as a lot of, lots of and plenty of.
There is an important difference between "a little" and "little" (used with non-count words) and between "a few" and "few" (used with count words). If I say that Tashonda has a little experience in management that means that although Tashonda is no great expert she does have some experience and that experience might well be enough for our purposes. If I say that Tashonda has little experience in management that means that she doesn't have enough experience. If I say that Charlie owns a few books on Latin American literature that means that he has some some books — not a lot of books, but probably enough for our purposes. If I say that Charlie owns few books on Latin American literature, that means he doesn't have enough for our purposes and we'd better go to the library.
Unless it is combined with of, the quantifier "much" is reserved for questions and negative statements:
·         Much of the snow has already melted.
·         How much snow fell yesterday?
·         Not much.
Note that the quantifier "most of the" must include the definite article the when it modifies a specific noun, whether it's a count or a non-count noun: "most of the instructors at this college have a doctorate"; "most of the water has evaporated." With a general plural noun, however (when you are not referring to a specific entity), the "of the" is dropped:
·         Most colleges have their own admissions policy.
·         Most students apply to several colleges.
An indefinite article is sometimes used in conjunction with the quantifier many, thus joining a plural quantifier with a singular noun (which then takes a singular verb):
·         Many a young man has fallen in love with her golden hair.
·         Many an apple has fallen by October.
This construction lends itself to a somewhat literary effect (some would say a stuffy or archaic effect) and is best used sparingly, if at all.

Online Exercises

2. Modal Verb

Modals are special verbs which behave very irregularly in English. Modal Forms
Modal verbs can be used in a variety of different forms. Study the examples below.


MODAL SIMPLE
PASSIVE MODAL SIMPLE
I could swim at the beach.
The room should be cleaned once a day
MODAL CONTINUOUS
PASSIVE MODAL CONTINUOUS
I could be swimming at the beach right now.
The room should be being cleaned now.
MODAL PERFECT
PASSIVE MODAL PERFECT
I could have swum at the beach yesterday.
The room should have been cleaned yesterday.
MODAL PERFECT CONTINUOUS
PASSIVE MODAL PERFECT CONTINUOUS
I could have been swimming at the beach instead of working in the office.
The room should have been being cleaned but nobody was there. (Rare form)


What are Modal Verbs?
Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs. Here are some important differences:

1. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person.
Examples:
•He can  speak Chinese.
•She should  be here by 9:00.

2. You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past.
Examples:
•He should not be late.
•They might not come to the party.

3. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses.
Examples:
•He will can go with us. Not Correct
•She musted study very hard. Not Correct


COMMON MODAL VERBS
Can
Could
May
Might
Must
Ought to
Shall
Should
Will
Would



EXERCISES
TOPICS COVERED
Modal Exercise 2
Modal Exercise 3
Might , Must and Should . Afterwards, you can repeat the exercise using Could , Have to and Ought to
Modal Exercise 4
Modal Exercise 5
Modal Exercise 6
Modal Exercise 7
Modal Final Test

4. Modal Verbs  Active And Passive Tenses Chart

SIMPLE PRESENT and SIMPLE PAST
The active object becomes the passive subject.
am/is/are +  past participle
was/were + past participle
Active: Simple Present
The movie fascinates me.
The movie bores Jack.
The movie surprises them.
Passive: Simple Present
I am fascinated by the movie.
Jack is bored by the movie.
They are surprised by the movie.
Active: Simple Past
The movie bored me.
The movie fascinated Jack.
The movie surprised them.
Passive: Simple Past
I was bored by the movie.
Jack was fascinated by the movie.
They were surprised by the movie.

PRESENT and PAST CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE)
Passive form: 
am/is/are + being + past participle
was/were + being + past participle
Active: Present Continuous
I am helping Shannon.
June is helping Su and Ling.
Passive: Present Continuous
Shannon is being helped by me.
Su and Ling are being helped by June.
Active: Past Continuous
I was cleaning the bathroom.
They were cleaning the bedroom.
Susan was cleaning the kitchen and patio.
Passive: Past Continuous
The bathroom was being cleaned by me.
The bedroom  was being cleaned by them.
The kitchen and patio were being

PRESENT PERFECT, PAST PERFECT and FUTURE PERFECT
Passive form: 
have/has been + past participle
had been + past participle
Active: Present Perfect
I have mailed the gift.
Jack has mailed the gifts.
Passive: Present Perfect
The gift has been mailed by me.
The gifts have been mailed by Jack.
Active: Past Perfect
Steven Spielberg had directed the movie.
Penny Marshall had directed those movies.
Passive: Past Perfect
The movie had been directed by Steven Spielberg.
The movies had been directed by Penny Marshall.
Active: Future Perfect
John will have finished the project next month.
They will have finished the projects before then.
Passive: Future Perfect
The project will have been finished by next month.
The projects will have been finished before then.

FUTURE TENSES
Passive forms: will + be + past participle
is/are going to be + past participle
Active: Future with WILL
I will mail the gift.
Jack will mail the gifts.
Passive: Future with WILL
The gift will be mailed by me.
The gifts will be mailed by Jack.
Active: Future with GOING TO
I am going to make the cake.
Sue is going to make two cakes.
Passive: Future with GOING TO
The cake is going to be made by me.
Two cakes are going to be made by Sue.

PRESENT / FUTURE MODALS
The passive form follows this pattern:
modal + be + past participle
Active: WILL / WON'T (WILL NOT)
Sharon will invite Tom to the party.
Sharon won't invite Jeff to the party.
(Sharon will not invite Jeff to the party.)
Passive: WILL / WON'T (WILL NOT)
Tom will be invited to the party by Sharon.
Jeff won't be invited to the party by Sharon.
(Jeff will not be invited to the party by Sharon.)
Active: CAN / CAN'T (CAN NOT)
Mai can foretell the future.
Terry can't foretell the future.
(Terry can not foretell the future.)
Passive: CAN / CAN'T (CAN NOT)
The future can be foretold by Mai.
The future can't be foretold by Terry.
(The future can not be foretold by Terry.)
Active: MAY / MAY NOT
Her company may give Katya a new office.
The lazy students may not do the homework.
MIGHT / MIGHT NOT
Her company might give Katya a new office.
The lazy students might not do the homework.
Passive: MAY / MAY NOT
Katya may be given a new office by her company.
The homework may not be done by the lazy students.
MIGHT / MIGHT NOT
Katya might be given a new office by her company.
The homework might not be done by the lazy students.
Active: SHOULD / SHOULDN'T
Students should memorize English verbs.
Children shouldn't smoke cigarettes.
Passive: SHOULD / SHOULDN'T
English verbs should be memorized  by students.
Cigarettes shouldn't be smoked  by children.
Active: OUGHT TO
Students ought to learn English verbs.
(negative ought to is rarely used)
Passive: OUGHT TO
English verbs ought to be memorized by students.
Active: HAD BETTER / HAD BETTER NOT
Students had better practice English every day.
Children had better not drink whiskey.
Passive: HAD BETTER / HAD BETTER NOT
English had better be practiced every day by students.
Whiskey had better not be drunk by children.
Active: MUST / MUST NOT
Tourists must apply for a passport to travel abroad.
Customers must not use that door.
Passive: MUST / MUST NOT
A passport to travel abroad must be applied for.
That door must not be used by customers.
Active: HAS TO / HAVE TO
She has to practice English every day.
Sara and Miho have to wash the dishes every day.
DOESN'T HAVE TO/ DON'T HAVE TO
Maria doesn't have to clean her bedroom every day.
The children don't have to clean their bedrooms every day.
Passive: HAS TO / HAVE TO
English has to be practiced every day.
The dishes have to be washed by them every day.
DOESN'T HAVE TO/ DON'T HAVE TO
Her bedroom doesn't have to be cleaned every day.
Their bedrooms don't have to be cleaned every day.
Active: BE SUPPOSED TO
I am supposed to type the composition.
I am not supposed to copy the stories in the book.
Janet is supposed to clean the living room.
She isn't supposed to eat candy and gum.
They are supposed to make dinner for the family.
They aren't supposed to make dessert.
Passive: BE SUPPOSED TO
The composition is supposed to be typed by me.
The stories in the book are not supposed to be copied.
The living room is supposed to be cleaned by Janet.
Candy and gum aren't supposed to be eaten by her.
Dinner for the family is supposed to be made by them.
Dessert isn't supposed to be made by them.

PAST MODALS
The past passive form follows this pattern:
modal + have been + past participle
Active: SHOULD HAVE / SHOULDN'T HAVE
The students should have learned the verbs.
The children shouldn't have broken the window.
Passive: SHOULD HAVE / SHOULDN'T HAVE
The verbs should have been learned by the students.
The window shouldn't have been broken by the children.
Active: OUGHT TO
Students ought to have learned the verbs.
(negative ought to is rarely used)
Passive: OUGHT TO
The verbs ought to have been learned by the students.
Active: BE SUPPOSED TO (past time)
I was supposed to type the composition.
I wasn't supposed to copy the story in the book.
Janet was supposed to clean the living room.
She wasn't supposed to eat candy and gum.
Frank and Jane were supposed to make dinner.
They weren't supposed to make dessert.
Passive: BE SUPPOSED TO (past time)
The composition was supposed to be typed  by me.
The story in the book wasn't supposed to be copied.
The living room was supposed to be cleaned by Janet.
Candy and gum weren't supposed to be eaten by her.
Dinner was supposed to be made by them.
Dessert wasn't supposed to be made by them.
Active: MAY / MAY NOT
That firm may have offered Katya a new job.
The students may not have written the paper.
MIGHT / MIGHT NOT
That firm might have offered Katya a new job.
The students might not have written the paper.
Passive: MAY / MAY NOT
Katya may have been offered a new job by that firm.
The paper may not have been written by the students.
MIGHT / MIGHT NOT
Katya might have been offered a new job by that firm.
The paper might not have been written by the students.
Online exercises:
http://www.monash.edu.au/lls/llonline/grammar/passive/5.xml

5. Reported Speech Online Practice
Statements in Reported Speech
Questions in Reported Speech
§  Exercise 1
§  Exercise 2
Requests in Reported Speech
Mixed Exercises on Reported Speech
§  Exercise 1
§  Exercise 2

 
6. Going to or will
When we want to talk about future facts or things we believe to be true about the future, we use 'will'.
  • The President will serve for four years.
  • The boss won't be very happy.
  • I'm sure you'll like her.
  • I'm certain he'll do a good job.
If we are not so certain about the future, we use 'will' with expressions such as 'probably', 'possibly', 'I think', 'I hope'.
  • I hope you'll visit me in my home one day.
  • She'll probably be a great success.
  • I'll possibly come but I may not get back in time.
  • I think we'll get on well.
If you are making a future prediction based on evidence in the present situation, use 'going to'.
  • Not a cloud in the sky. It's going to be another warm day.
  • Look at the queue. We're not going to get in for hours.
  • The traffic is terrible. We're going to miss our flight.
  • Be careful! You're going to spill your coffee.
At the moment of making a decision, use 'will'. Once you have made the decision, talk about it using 'going to'.
  • I'll call Jenny to let her know. Sarah, I need Jenny's number. I'm going to call her about the meeting.
  • I'll come and have a drink with you but I must let Harry know. Harry, I'm going to have a drink with Simon.
Online Exercises

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